Understanding Company Car and Fuel Benefits: What You Need to Know

I often receive inquiries about the tax implications of company cars and fuel benefits. Whether you’re a business owner providing these perks or an employee receiving them, understanding the financial impact is crucial. Here’s a detailed overview of how these benefits are calculated and what they mean for your tax position.

Car Benefit Calculation

The primary factor in determining your car benefit is the list price of the vehicle at the time it was first registered. This means any discounts negotiated by your employer do not affect the calculation. For illustration, let’s assume the list price of your new company car is £40,000.

The list price is then subjected to a percentage based on the car’s CO2 emissions, rounded down to the nearest multiple of 5. The percentage ranges from 20% for cars emitting 75g/km of CO2 to a maximum of 37% for those emitting 160g/km or more. For a car emitting 130g/km of CO2, the calculation would be as follows:

  1. Calculate the base percentage:
  1. CO2 emissions (130g/km) minus 75g/km = 55.
  2. Divide 55 by 5 = 11.
  3. Add the base percentage of 20% to get 31%.
  1. Determine the annual car benefit:
  1. £40,000 (list price) × 31% = £12,400.

Since the car is available for only five months in the 2024/25 tax year, we need to pro-rate this benefit:

  • Annual benefit: £12,400.
  • Pro-rated for five months: £12,400 × (5/12) = £5,167.

Additionally, if you contribute to the cost of using the car (e.g., £100 per month), this reduces the benefit:

  • Total contributions: £100 × 5 = £500.
  • Adjusted car benefit: £5,167 – £500 = £4,667.

Thus, the car benefit for the 2024/25 tax year is £4,667.

Fuel Benefit Calculation

If your employer covers the cost of fuel for private use, this creates a taxable benefit. The benefit is calculated using a fixed amount of £27,800, multiplied by the same percentage used for the car benefit (31% in this example).

  1. Calculate the annual fuel benefit:
  1. £27,800 × 31% = £8,618.

Since the fuel is provided for only five months, this too needs to be pro-rated:

  • Annual fuel benefit: £8,618.
  • Pro-rated for five months: £8,618 × (5/12) = £3,591.

Therefore, the fuel benefit for the 2024/25 tax year is £3,591.

Key Points to Remember

  1. No Partial Contributions: If you partially reimburse your employer for private fuel use, it does not reduce the fuel benefit. It’s either all or nothing.
  2. Business Fuel Exemption: No fuel benefit arises if your employer pays only for business fuel. However, commuting is not considered business travel.
  3. Diesel Surcharge: Diesel cars not meeting the Real Driving Emissions Step 2 (RDE2) standard attract a 4% supplement to the car benefit percentage, though it cannot exceed the 37% cap.

Practical Considerations

Given the tax implications, it’s worth reconsidering whether to opt for a company car or take cash instead, especially if your car has high CO2 emissions. Opting for a vehicle with lower emissions can significantly reduce your taxable benefit.

Employers also need to factor in Class 1A National Insurance contributions, which are 13.8% of the cash equivalent of the car and fuel benefits.

Understanding these nuances ensures that both employers and employees can make informed decisions regarding company cars and fuel benefits. If you have any further queries or need personalized calculations, feel free to reach out.

This breakdown should help demystify the tax implications of company cars and fuel benefits, allowing you to make more informed financial decisions.

A Comprehensive Guide to Property Tax for Landlords in the UK

Are you considering letting out a property in the UK and wondering about the property tax implications? In this blog, we’ll provide you with valuable insights into how property tax works for landlords in the United Kingdom.

The Cash Basis and Taxable Profit

If your gross receipts from letting out the property do not exceed £150,000 in a tax year, your taxable profit will be calculated using the cash basis. This means that each tax year, you will be taxed on rent received less allowable expenses paid, which are the amounts physically received and paid during that specific year.

For example, if your rent is paid monthly in arrears, and a payment due on 31 March 2023 is not received until 15 April 2023, it will be taxable in the 2023/24 tax year, even though it relates to the previous tax year.

Allowable Expenses

Expenses are deductible from rents only if they are ‘wholly and exclusively’ for the business of letting. These expenses may include fees for a letting agent, insurance, travel costs, water charges, council tax (if paid by you), and the cost of repairs.

If you need to replace the windows or central heating system, it will be regarded as an allowable repair expense. However, if the replacement is considered an improvement, it won’t be an allowable expense that can be set against rental income. However, the use of new technology as part of a repair does not necessarily turn the repair into an improvement.

Relief for Loan Interest

If you have taken out a loan to purchase the property, relief will be available for the interest paid at a rate of 20%. This relief will be deducted from your final tax liability. Nonetheless, if your property income for the year is less than the amount of interest eligible for relief, the relief will be restricted to 20% of the property income, and the excess interest can be carried forward for relief in a subsequent year.

Relief for Furnished Properties

If you let the property furnished, you can claim relief for the cost of replacing domestic items such as furniture, furnishings, household appliances, and kitchenware.

Property Allowance

You have the option to claim a property allowance of £1,000 instead of the allowable expenses and mortgage interest relief, if your property costs are below the allowance or if you prefer a simpler expense calculation process.

Tax Rates, Losses and Carry-Forward

Property income is taxed at 20% if you are a basic rate taxpayer, at 40% if you are a higher rate taxpayer, and at 45% if your income is the higher rate band.

If your expenses exceed your rental income in a tax year, you will have no tax liability for that year. The loss arising can be carried forward and set against your rental income in future years. However, you cannot use the loss against other types of income or carry it back against rental income from previous years.

Notify HMRC

If you do not already fill in a tax return, you must inform HMRC that you will be chargeable to tax for this new source of rental income. If you start letting the property in 2023/24, you have until 5 October 2024 to notify HMRC, as there are penalties for failure to notify.

We hope this guide provides you with a clear understanding of property tax in the UK as a landlord. It is important to keep accurate records of your rental income and expenses to ensure you comply with tax regulations and make the most of available reliefs. If you have any specific questions or need further assistance, it is advisable to consult with a tax professional or accountant for personalized advice.

Your Guide to Self-Assessment: Responsibilities and Deadlines for Tax Returns

If you’ve recently embarked on the journey of running your own business, congratulations! While it’s undoubtedly an exciting venture, it comes with certain responsibilities, one of which is filing your tax return. In this article, we’ll delve into your responsibilities under self-assessment, the crucial filing deadlines for tax returns, and the implications of submitting a late or incorrect return.

Notify HMRC of Your Chargeability

First and foremost, as a business owner, you have an obligation to notify Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) that you are liable for income tax. To avoid potential penalties, make sure to notify HMRC by October 5th following the end of the tax year. For instance, if you’re looking at the tax year 2022/23, the notification deadline is October 5, 2023.

Penalties for Late Notification

If you fail to notify HMRC by the specified deadline, you may become liable for a penalty. The penalty amount depends on the circumstances leading to the late notification and is calculated as a percentage of the unpaid income tax (including Class 4 National Insurance contributions) as of January 31st following the tax year. The exact penalty varies based on the level of disclosure to HMRC.

  • Deliberate and Concealed Failure: 30% to 100% of the unpaid amount
  • Deliberate but Not Concealed Failure: 20% to 70%
  • Any Other Case: 0% to 30%

Filing Your Tax Return

Once you’ve notified HMRC of your chargeability, they will send you a notice to file a tax return for the relevant tax year, such as 2022/23. The deadline for returning the completed tax form depends on whether you choose to submit a paper return or an online return.

Online Return

For those opting for an online return, you must submit it by January 31st following the end of the tax year. However, this deadline could be extended if HMRC delays issuing the notice to file a return. In such cases, the deadline becomes three months from the notice issue date. With an online return, HMRC will automatically calculate your tax liability.

Paper Return

If you prefer a paper return, you should submit it by the 31st of October 2023. As with online returns, the deadline may be extended if HMRC delays the notice to file a return, in which case you have three months from the notice issue date. If you don’t want to calculate your tax liability yourself, HMRC will take care of it for you.

Late Returns

Submitting your tax return after the deadline incurs penalties:

  • Automatic Fixed Penalty: £100 for late filing
  • Daily Penalties for being at least 3 Months late: £10 per day, up to a maximum of 90 days
  • Submission More Than Six Months Late: An additional penalty of 5% of the tax liability or £300 if greater
  • Submission More Than 12 Months Late: The above penalty is repeated.

If you deliberately withhold but do not conceal information that could help HMRC assess the tax liability, the maximum penalty increases to 70% of the tax liability (or £300 if greater). In cases where the withholding of information is deliberate and concealed, the maximum penalty is 100% of the tax liability (or £300 if greater).

Incorrect Returns

If your tax return is found to be incorrect, a penalty may be imposed, depending on the circumstances and level of disclosure:

  • No Penalty: If you’ve taken reasonable care in preparing the return
  • 0% to 30% Penalty: If you fail to take reasonable care
  • 20% to 70% Penalty: Deliberate error but not concealed
  • 30% to 100% Penalty: Deliberate and concealed error

In conclusion, understanding your responsibilities under self-assessment and meeting the filing deadlines is vital for smooth tax compliance. Always strive for accuracy and timely submissions to avoid unnecessary penalties. Remember that professional assistance from an accountant or tax expert can be invaluable in navigating the intricacies of tax returns and ensuring compliance with the HMRC guidelines.

Mastering Financial Management: Best Practices for Small Businesses

As an accountant, I understand the challenges that small business owners face when it comes to managing their finances effectively. From bookkeeping to financial statements, budgeting, and cash flow management, it is crucial to have a solid grasp of these areas to ensure the financial health and success of your business. In this blog post, I will share some best practices and tips to help you navigate the complex world of financial management for small businesses.

Accurate Bookkeeping

Maintaining accurate and up-to-date books is the foundation of sound financial management. Implementing a reliable bookkeeping system, whether it’s through accounting software or working with a professional bookkeeper, is essential. Record all financial transactions promptly, including sales, purchases, expenses, and payments. Regularly reconcile your bank accounts to ensure accuracy.

Organized Financial Statements

Financial statements provide a snapshot of your business’s financial health. Keep your income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement updated and organized. These statements will help you understand your revenue, expenses, assets, liabilities, and cash flow patterns. Regularly review them to gain insights into your business’s performance and make informed decisions.

Budgeting for Success

Creating a budget allows you to plan and allocate your financial resources effectively. Start by analyzing your historical data to identify trends and patterns. Set realistic revenue and expense targets for each period, and regularly monitor your actual performance against the budgeted figures. Adjust your budget as needed to reflect changes in your business environment.

Cash Flow Management

Cash flow is the lifeblood of any business, and managing it effectively is crucial. Develop a cash flow forecast to project your future cash inflows and outflows. This will help you identify potential cash shortages or surpluses in advance, allowing you to take proactive measures. Consider implementing strategies such as optimizing your payment terms, reducing unnecessary expenses, and maintaining a cash reserve to ensure you can meet your financial obligations.

Regular Financial Analysis

Take the time to analyze your financial data regularly. Look for key performance indicators (KPIs) that are relevant to your industry and business model. This could include metrics like gross profit margin, net profit margin, inventory turnover, or customer acquisition cost. By monitoring these indicators, you can identify areas for improvement and make data-driven decisions to enhance your financial performance.

Seek Professional Guidance

Consider working with a qualified accountant or financial advisor who specializes in small businesses. They can provide valuable insights, help you interpret your financial data, and offer strategic advice tailored to your specific circumstances. They can also ensure compliance with tax laws and help you optimize your tax position, potentially saving you money in the long run.

To conclude, managing the finances of a small business requires discipline, organization, and a proactive approach. By implementing these best practices and tips for bookkeeping, financial statements, budgeting, and cash flow management, you can gain better control over your business’s financial health. Remember, consistent monitoring and analysis of your financial data will empower you to make informed decisions and drive your business toward long-term success.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Trading as a Self-Employed vs Limited Company

Are you finding it difficult to decide whether to trade as a self-employed or limited company?

As a business owner, one of the biggest decisions you will have to make is how to structure your business. For many entrepreneurs, the choice comes down to whether to trade as a self-employed individual or as a limited company. In this blog, we’ll explore the advantages and disadvantages of each option to help you make an informed decision.


  1. Simplicity: Being self-employed is straightforward and requires less paperwork compared to a limited company. You only need to register as self-employed with HMRC, keep track of your income and expenses, and file a self-assessment tax return once a year.
  2. Control: As a self-employed person, you have complete control over your business. You can make all the decisions and do not need to consult with anyone else before taking action.
  3. Flexibility: Self-employment offers flexibility in terms of working hours, location, and the type of work you do. You can choose to work from home or rent an office, set your own schedule, and take on the projects that interest you.
  1. Unlimited Liability: One of the biggest drawbacks of being self-employed is that you are personally liable for any debts and legal claims against your business. This means that your personal assets, such as your home, car or savings, could be at risk if your business is sued or goes bankrupt.
  2. Limited Access to Financing: As a self-employed person, it can be challenging to secure financing from banks and other lenders as you may not have a track record of revenue or profit.
  3. Limited Growth Potential: As a one-person business, your ability to take on larger projects and expand your business is limited, which can stifle growth.

Limited Company

  1. Limited Liability: One of the most significant benefits of incorporating as a limited company is that you are not personally liable for any debts or legal claims against the business. This means that your personal assets are protected, and you only risk losing the amount of money you have invested in the company.
  2. Access to Financing: Limited companies often have better access to financing as they are viewed as more stable and reliable than self-employed individuals.
  3. Tax Efficiency: Limited companies can be more tax-efficient than self-employment as they can pay corporation tax on profits rather than income tax on earnings. Additionally, dividends paid to shareholders are subject to lower tax rates than income tax.
  1. Administration: Limited companies require more administration than self-employment, including the need to register with Companies House, maintain accurate financial records, and file annual accounts and corporation tax returns.
  2. Less Control: As a limited company, you will need to adhere to corporate governance rules and may need to consult with other shareholders or directors before making significant decisions.
  3. Increased Costs: Incorporating a limited company can be more expensive than registering as self-employed due to legal and accountancy fees.

In conclusion, both self-employment and limited company structures have their advantages and disadvantages. Choosing the right structure for your business depends on your individual circumstances, goals, and preferences. We recommend seeking advice from an accountant or financial advisor before making a final decision.

Accountant’s Advice for Freelancers

Key Advice for Sole Traders

As a self-employed individual in the UK, managing your finances and keeping track of your expenses can be a daunting task. Accounting may not be your area of expertise, but it’s crucial to get it right to avoid any unnecessary penalties or fines from HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC).

Here are some accounting tips that can help you stay on top of your finances:

1. Keep track of your income and expenses

It’s essential to keep accurate records of your income and expenses to help you understand your business’s financial health. You can use a simple spreadsheet or an accounting software program to record all your transactions. Be sure to categorize your expenses correctly, as this can help your accountant to identify unclaimed tax-deductible expenses.

2. Take advantage of tax deductions

There are several tax deductions available to self-employed individuals in the UK, including expenses related to your home office, personal telephone, internet use and business travel. Your accountant can help you identify these deductions and maximize your savings.

3. Understand your tax obligations

As a self-employed individual, you’ll need to pay income tax and National Insurance contributions (NICs) on your profits. It’s important to understand your tax obligations and deadlines to avoid any penalties or fines. You can find more information on the HMRC website or consult with a qualified accountant.

4. Set aside money for taxes

When you’re self-employed, you won’t have taxes deducted from your income as employed individuals do. It’s important to set aside money regularly for taxes, so you’re not caught off guard when it’s time to pay. A good rule of thumb is to save around 20-30% of your income for taxes.

5. Use the Flat Rate Scheme (FRS)

If your business has a turnover of less than £150,000 per year, you may be eligible for the Flat Rate Scheme (FRS). This scheme allows you to pay a fixed percentage of your turnover as VAT, which can simplify your accounting process and save you money.

6. Consult with a qualified accountant

Accounting can be complex, and it’s easy to make mistakes that can lead to penalties or fines. Working with a qualified accountant can help you understand your finances, ensure compliance with tax laws, and identify opportunities to save money.

To conclude, managing your finances as a self-employed individual can be challenging, but it’s crucial to get it right. By following these tips and maintaining a good working relationship with your accountant, you can manage your finances effectively and avoid any tax-related issues.

Flat Rate scheme explained

What is a Flat Rate VAT?

The Flat Rate Scheme (FRS) is a simplified method of accounting for Value Added Tax (VAT) in the United Kingdom. It is designed to make the VAT accounting process easier for small businesses by simplifying the way VAT is calculated and reducing the amount of paperwork involved.

Under the FRS, a business calculates its VAT liability as a fixed percentage of its turnover including VAT. The percentage varies depending on the type of business and the industry. This fixed percentage includes VAT, so the business does not need to separately account for VAT on each transaction.

FRS calculation example

Let’s say a business has a turnover of £100,000 and the FRS percentage for their industry is 12.5%. Instead of calculating their VAT liability as 20% of their total sales (£20,000), they would simply multiply their turnover including VAT by the FRS percentage (£120,000 x 12.5% = £15,000). This means their VAT liability for the period would be £15,000.

One of the key advantages of the FRS is that it simplifies the record-keeping requirements for VAT, as businesses only need to keep a record of their total sales and the FRS percentage that applies to their industry. Additionally, businesses can usually make a profit from using the FRS, as the fixed percentage includes an allowance for VAT on expenses, which the business gets to keep.

The flat rate scheme is not suitable for ALL businesses

Businesses that make a lot of zero-rated or exempt sales may not benefit from the FRS, as they will not be able to reclaim VAT on their purchases. Additionally, businesses that have high levels of input VAT (VAT paid on purchases) may find that the FRS does not provide them with a significant benefit.

It is important for businesses to carefully consider whether the FRS is right for them, and to seek professional advice if they are unsure.

What is a tax code?

Your tax code is used by your employer or pension provider to work out what tax-free pay you are entitled to and how much Income Tax to take from your pay or pension.  HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) will tell them which code to use.

If you are employed and have only one source of income, and there is nothing unusual about your circumstances or history, you will most likely have a tax code of 1257L from April 2021 (in England). The “L“ indicates that you are entitled to the full personal allowance, but there are a variety of different letters you might see. The personal allowance from 6th April 2021 to 5th April 2022 will be £12,570 but the last digit is dropped when constructing the tax code.

If you have more than one job, you may find that your personal allowance is split across the two workplaces. Otherwise, you may have 1257L on one job and BR on the other. HMRC will apply a BR code when it believes you are a basic rate taxpayer and that your personal allowance is being used in full against another source of income you have. Any income with a BR code will be taxed at 20%.

Your tax code is important because it will affect how much tax you pay. When HMRC issues you with a tax code, you should make sure you check the calculations.

Use the check your Income Tax online service within your Personal Tax Account to find your tax code for the current and past year. If you think your tax code is wrong, you can update your employment details directly on your Personal Tax Account.

More information about tax codes can be found here.

Can I employ my own children?

Children are staying at home as a result of COVID-19 lockdown. Also school summer holidays are approaching soon, unfortunately not showing a lot of promise that holiday destinations and clubs will re-open soon. If you have older children at home, you must be aware that it is an expensive and potentially frustrating time of year.

Moreover, it is harder now for young people to find temporary part-time jobs. When they are back at school or college they might not have the spare time to keep jobs in the long term. Meanwhile, having some work experience is more important than ever to differentiate yourself on UCAS forms and other training scheme applications. As a business owner, you have unique advantage over other people in paid employment and can do something about it.

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Some Of The Most Unbelievable Excuses For Late Tax Returns

The top list of failed excuses for late returns released by HMRC:
  1. I couldn’t file my return on time as my wife has been seeing aliens and won’t let me enter the house.
  2. I’ve been far too busy touring the country with my one-man play.
  3. My ex-wife left my tax return upstairs, but I suffer from vertigo and can’t go upstairs to retrieve it.
  4. My business doesn’t really do anything.
  5. I spilt coffee on it.

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